Climate | Geography
Cambodia, a country in Southeast Asia in the southern
part of Indochina, covers an area of 181,035 square
kilometers and has a population of 13,124764 million
(2003 est.). The country's shape is an almost-square
polygon, with Kampong Thom Province as its central
point. The country extends 440 kilometers from north to
south and 560 kilometers from west to east. This shape
makes Cambodia easy for tourists to navigate and poses
no difficulties for the development of tourism.
Among the 10 member countries of the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Cambodia ranks eight in
land size and seventh in population. Its geographical
location makes Cambodia an easily accessible ecotourism
destination for travelers in neighboring countries and
other parts of the world.
The country is situated geographically between the 10th
and 15th parallels north latitude and the 102nd and
108th parallels east latitude.
Boundaries of the Country:
The borders of Cambodia encompass 2,600 kilometers of
which five-sixths are land and one-sixth is costal
The Kingdom of Cambodia is bounded on the northeast by
the people's Democratic Republic of Laos, on the east
and southeast by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and
on the west and northwest by the Kingdom of Thailand.
The coastal boundary of Cambodia is 440 kilometers with
medium depth tropical sea, rich in aquatic creatures
that are good for aquatic business. In addition, there
are beautiful, uninhabited islands, virgin beaches,
white sand and fresh air, which are also good for
Topography of Land:
Cambodia's land surface is deep and plain at the middle
since it is surrounded by mountain and plateaus. In the
southwest lies the coastal area.
As regards tourism development, Cambodia is classified
by four types of topography:
This area covers 25,069 square kilometers. The total
population of the plain area is 5,898,305 or about 51.6
percent of the entire population, and the population
density is 235 persons per square kilometer, according
to the 1998 census. This area consists of 63 districts,
700 communes and 6,414 villages. The capital city of
Phnom Penh, as well as Kandal, Kampong Cham, Svay Riend,
Prey Veng and Takeo provinces are located in this area.
The plain area is the most crowded inhabited by many
races of people including Khmer, Chinese, Vietnamese,
Cham, Thai, Lao and Westerners. Minority groups
including Kuoy and Steang also live in the Krek and
Memut district in Kompong Cham province.
Surrounded Great Lake Tonle Sap Area:
This area covers 67,668 square kilometers. the total
population of the surrounding Great Lake Tonle sap area
is 3,505,448 or about 30.7 percent of the entire
population of Cambodia, and the population density is 57
persons per square kilometer, according to the 1998
census. It consists of 60 districs, 488 communes and
4,041 villages. The area includes Kampong Thom, Siem
Reap, Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, Kampong
Chhnang and Oddar Meanchey provinces and Pailin city.
The surrounding Tonle Sap area is inhabited by many
races of people, including Khmer, Chinese, Vietnamese
and Cham. In addition, there are a number of minority
hill tribes such as Sa Och, Steang and Samre, who
inhabit the mountainous area.
Cambodia's coastal area covers 17,237 square kilometers.
The total population living in the coastal area is about
845,000 people, or about 49 persons per square
kilometer, according to the 1998 census. It consists of
21 districts, 152 communes and 705 villages. The area
includes Sihanoukville, Kampot and Koh Kong provinces,
and Kep city. All lie along Cambodia's southwestern
coast, which is 440 kilometers long. Sihanoukville is
the mid point of the coastal area. It is 232 kilometers
from Phnom Penh.
About 80 percent of the population of the coastal area
is Khmer, although Cham, Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai and
ethnic minorities such Sa Och also live here. Most of
people living along the coast have a good life. They
earn their living by farming and fishing.
The topography of Cambodia's coastal area is
mountainous, plateau, plain, coast, seaside and gulf.
There is much sand in this area. Palm oil, rubber,
coconuts, pepper, durian and other crops can be grown in
this area. It is also rich in vaieties of mangrove.
The total length of the Cambodian coastal area has been
disputed over the year. The generally accepted length is
440 kilometers, although a 1997 survey by the DANIDA
organization set the length at 435 kilometers, while the
Oil Authority in 1973 determined the coast to be 450
kilometers long. In Cambodian schools, however, the 440
kilometer figure is used.
Cambodia's gulf, which divides the country from the
Malacca subcontinent, is not very deep, averaging only
50 meters. The maximum depth is 81 meters. The bottom is
There are 60 islands in Cambodia's coastal waters. They
include 23 in Koh Kong province, 2 in Kampot province,
22 in Sihanoukville and 13 in Kep city.
Plateau and Mountainous Area:
This area covers 68,061 square kilometers. The total
population of mountainous and plateau region is
1,189,042 or about 10.3 percent of the country's entire
population, and the population density is 17 persons per
square kilometer, according to the 1998 census. It
consists of 39 districts, 283 communes and 2,246
villages. The area includes Kampong Speu, Kratie, Stung
Treng, Preah Vihear, Rattanakiri, and Mondulkiri
The mountainous and plateau region is inhabited by many
races of people, including Khmer, Chinese, Vietnamese,
Laotian, and Thai. In addition, there are 18 minority
groups. They include Pnong, Steang, Kraol, Ro Oung,
Tumpun, Tmuon, Bruv, Smil, Kuoy, Ar Norng, Charay,
Kreung, Roder, Kha, Sa Och, Kachok, Kavet and Lun. Of
these minority groups, the Pnong are the largest,
comprising about 45 percent of the minority population.
Source: Ministry of Tourism of the Kingdom of